Overview on Epidemiology, Causes and Management of Gynecomastia


  • Mohammed Salah Hussain Department of gastroenterology and endoscopy, Dr Samir Abbas Hospital,Jeddah ,KSA. Department of internal medicine,faculty of medicine, Alazhar University hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7240-1976
  • Meshari dubay k aldhafeeri King khalid hospital, KSA. https://orcid.org/0009-0000-8850-6804
  • Noora Salah Jasim Selaibeekh Salmaniya Medical Complex-Bahrain. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8884-0378
  • Mona Abdullah Almozher Dar Aluloom University, KSA.
  • Mohammad Mahmoud Bayer Intern, Elrazi university Sudan. King Saud Hospital, unaizah, KSA. https://orcid.org/0009-0009-2553-3309
  • Alaa Jameel Ahmed King saud medical city, KSA.
  • Mohammed Mesfer Alqahtani King Faisal University, KSA. https://orcid.org/0009-0001-0862-2811
  • Turki Hamad S Alatawi King Salman Armed Forces Hospital (KSAFH), KSA. https://orcid.org/0009-0002-4843-7503
  • Omar Abdullah Muaddi Medical Services, Ministry of Interior, KSA.
  • Abdulrahman Musaad Alharbi Primary Healthcare Center of Public Security in Makkah, KSA.
  • Hamad Mohammed AlAblani Prince Sultan Military Medical City - Riyadh, KSA.
  • Alwaleed Abdulmalik Albarkani Medical intern, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for health sciences (KSAU-Hs), KSA.
  • Ahmad Mohammedridha AlAli Prince Saud Bin Jalawi hospital, KSA.




Gynecomastisa, Saudi Arabia, Epidemiology, Causes, ManagementRemove Gynecomastisa


Background: Gynecomastia is characterized by the benign enlargement of male breast tissue, a condition witnessed across varied age brackets and influenced by several factors. While its global prevalence and causative factors have been comprehensively documented, there is a notable gap in understanding its specific implications within Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the etiology, epidemiology, and management strategies of gynecomastia, emphasizing its manifestation in the context of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken, sourcing articles and studies from established databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar, facilitated by targeted internet searches, with particular emphasis of Saudi Arabia studies.

Results: Gynecomastia's incidence notably peaks during puberty and in the older demographic, with various medications, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors contributing to its onset. Within Saudi Arabia, a 15-year case series reflected gynecomastia as the predominant benign male breast lesion, constituting 54% of such cases. In terms of treatment, hormonal therapies like tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and certain androgens have been employed, albeit with varying degrees of efficacy. Surgical avenues such as liposuction and mastectomy present more conclusive solutions for the affected when pharmacotherapy is ineffective.

Conclusion: Gynecomastia is a significant condition with diverse influencing factors. In Saudi Arabia, despite limited data, gynecomastia emerges as a pressing health concern. There exist a range of medical and surgical interventions, ensuring a holistic approach to patient care and management.




How to Cite

Salah Hussain M, dubay k aldhafeeri M, Salah Jasim Selaibeekh N, Abdullah Almozher M, Mahmoud Bayer M, Jameel Ahmed A, Mesfer Alqahtani M, Alatawi THS, Abdullah Muaddi O, Musaad Alharbi A, Mohammed AlAblani H, Abdulmalik Albarkani A, Mohammedridha AlAli A. Overview on Epidemiology, Causes and Management of Gynecomastia. SMHJ [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 20 [cited 2024 May 18];4(1):19-24. Available from: https://smh-j.com/smhj/article/view/90



Review Article